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The difference between series motor and shunt motor

Date:2023-09-16   Author:XINDA MOTOR

Series motor advantages and disadvantages

The series motor is a DC motor. Its principle is to connect the armature coil and the field coil together in series, so that it can produce both induced magnetic field and magnetic excitation magnetic field during the working process. During operation, the voltage applied to the armature of the motor will generate a current, which will generate a certain magnetic field when passing through the armature coil, and then interact with the magnetic field generated in the field coil to form an induced magnetic field and a The composite magnetic field of the magnetic excitation field.

This composite magnetic field will cause the motor to rotate. As the armature continues to rotate, the composite magnetic field will continue to change, allowing the motor to maintain a stable rotation speed. Series motors have the advantages of large starting torque, stable speed, and are suitable for applications requiring precise speed regulation. Therefore, they are widely used in household appliances, mechanical equipment, industrial production and other fields .

Advantages of series DC motors:

1. High starting torque: In the initial stage, because the magnetic flux is very small, its starting torque is very high.

2. Lower voltages can be used: Series DC motors have very low electromotive force and can operate at low voltages.

3. Wide speed adjustment range: The speed of series DC motors can be easily adjusted, making them universal drives that can be used in most applications.

4. Small footprint: They are small and easy to manufacture and install.

Disadvantages of series DC motors:

1. Unstable rotational speed: The loss of the brush and armature may cause armature voltage changes, resulting in unstable rotational speed.

2. Maintenance required: Brushes need to be replaced regularly, and the armature can be damaged by high currents.

3. High manufacturing cost: Compared to other types of motors, the manufacturing cost is high because higher quality materials need to be used.

The difference between series motor and shunt motor

Series motors and shunt motors are both DC motors, and the difference between them lies in the way the magnetic field is generated.

A series-wound motor means that the armature and the excitation coil are connected in series in the circuit, and the excitation current flows through the armature, which can generate both the armature magnetic field and the excitation magnetic field. Since the armature magnetic field is opposite to the excitation magnetic field, it is called "series excitation". Series motors are characterized by large starting torque, high mechanical stiffness, and sensitive response during braking. However, they have weak response to load fluctuations and require voltage stability control.

A shunt motor means that the armature and field coil are connected in parallel in the circuit, and the armature and field coil are powered by independent power supplies. The armature current flows through the armature to form the armature magnetic field, and the field current flows through the field coil to form an independent field field. Since the armature magnetic field and the excitation magnetic field are in the same direction, they are called "parallel excitation". The characteristics of shunt motors are stable speed, fast response, and light starting. However, they have strong electromagnetic interference and require good power supply filtering measures.

Generally speaking, series motors and shunt motors have different application scenarios, advantages and disadvantages, and need to be selected according to specific circumstances.