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Components and working principle of electric vehicle motor controller

Date:2022-10-04   Author:XINDA MOTOR
Introduction: The electric vehicle motor controller is another core of the "three electricity" of electric vehicles; electric vehicles must rely on the motor controller to achieve acceleration, cruise control, and energy recovery; the motor controller can be said to be an electric vehicle. In the "control center", the control commands issued by the driver must be executed by the motor controller.

  1. The composition of the electric vehicle motor controller

  The motor controller mainly consists of the following parts:

  1.1. Electronic Controller

  The electronic control module includes hardware circuits and corresponding control software. Hardware circuits mainly include microprocessors and their minimum systems, monitoring circuits for motor current, voltage, speed, temperature and other states, various hardware protection circuits, and data interaction with external control units such as vehicle controllers and battery management systems. communication circuit. The control software implements corresponding control algorithms according to the characteristics of different types of motors.

  1.2. Driver

  The driver converts the control signal of the microcontroller to the motor into the drive signal for driving the power converter, and realizes the isolation of the power signal and the control signal.

  1.3. Power Conversion Module (PowerConverter) 

  The power conversion module controls the motor current. Power devices often used in electric vehicles include high-power transistors, gate turn-off thyristors, power field effect transistors, insulated gate bipolar transistors, and intelligent power modules.

  2. the working principle of the motor controller 

  The motor drives the car to move forward, and the motor controller drives the motor to work; the motor controller consists of an inverter and a controller; the inverter receives the DC power delivered by the battery, and inverts it into three-phase AC power to provide power to the car motor ;The controller receives signals such as motor speed and feeds it back to the instrument. When braking or acceleration occurs, the controller controls the rise and fall of the frequency of the inverter , so as to achieve the purpose of acceleration or deceleration.