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Motor standard ranking list

Date:2023-11-18   Author:XINDA MOTOR

This time I want to talk about electrical standards, but I’m worried that no one will read if I write honestly. In order to increase the topic, let’s make a ranking list.

Ranking is a very subjective matter. In particular, although the author has been in the motor circle for twenty years, motor types, sizes, application fields, etc. vary widely, so... you can only choose within the scope of your knowledge. There are not many standards that I have been exposed to in total, and my knowledge is limited, so I can only rank in the top ten.

Basis for selection and sorting

1. Do not evaluate mandatory standards. The twisted melon may not be sweet, but it doesn't always feel like the sweetest. For example, GB 18613 (from now on the default is GB if there is no letter before the number), 14711 or even the 3836 series. It is not that it is bad, but that the manufacturer has no choice but to comply. Although the impact of these standards on the industry is huge and positive, we can only give up love.

2. Pay attention to the motor itself. Those that are too broad should not be selected; although there is some reluctance, the importance of raw material standards should be reduced. There are too many standards for raw materials, and there are many standards for electromagnetic wire alone. If you choose electromagnetic wire, you also have to choose silicon steel sheets, and bearings... so you have to choose less.

3. Strong knowledge and guidance for design work. Some friends don't like to read standards. They always feel that standards are just making demands on people. In fact, this is not the case. Good standards not only set requirements, but also guide you on how to meet the requirements, which is very beneficial to personal progress.

4. Wide range of applications. Some standards are aimed at a specific industry; if they can be used as a reference for other industries, I would be very happy to include them; while some standards are rarely adopted by people outside the industry and cannot be included here.

Closer to home, please prepare your bricks for the following rankings.

GB/T 1032 Three-phase asynchronous motor test methods

Not everyone may agree that the three-phase asynchronous motor has the most extensive application scenarios, but it is supported by data that it consumes the most power. This standard mainly introduces the test methods for several important performance indicators of asynchronous motors: temperature rise test, load test, no-load test and stall test. By understanding these test projects and summarizing the test data, not only will the understanding of asynchronous motors be improved by two levels, but also the data analysis will be understood. Therefore, if you are new to the motor industry, be sure to read the standard thoroughly, and it is best to compare it with a textbook on motor operation. After selecting this standard, similar ones such as 22670, 25442, etc. will no longer be selected.

GB/T 21209 Application Guidelines for AC Motors Used in Electric Drive Systems

I have recommended this in the public account, and I am willing to change its name to " Design Guide for Variable Frequency Asynchronous Motors". Because it clearly explains the differences between variable frequency motors and industrial frequency motors: speed range and cooling method, additional losses and effects, noise and vibration, insulation system, bearing current, etc. Today, when variable frequency motors are used more and more widely, unlike everyone who has a copy of "Electrical Machinery", there are not many books on "variable frequency motors", so this standard is even more valuable. Many high-speed motors are realized by increasing the power frequency, which is one of the important branches of variable frequency motors.

GB/T 32891.2 Efficiency classification of rotating electrical machines Part 2: Variable speed AC motors

If you are looking for a standard similar to the previous one, this is it. They all discuss variable frequency motors. Of course, the difference is that this standard focuses on explaining the efficiency of the motor , and it applies not only to asynchronous motors, but also to permanent magnet motors. It mainly reveals the impact of additional harmonics on efficiency when the inverter supplies power: that is, on the basis of the efficiency of the power frequency electric test motor, additional harmonic coefficients must also be considered. In addition, this standard also has reference efficiency values for motors with different energy efficiency levels, different powers and speeds under industrial frequency power supply, which are basically the same as 18613 (of course, 18613 actually comes from its older brother IEC 60034-30-1). Therefore, both industrial frequency variable frequency motors and asynchronous permanent magnet motors can refer to this standard. Other efficiency standards are not so widely used, and the reliability of the numerical values is not very high. In addition, inexplicable standards like 30253 should be updated as soon as possible!

GB/T 25123.4 Rotating electrical machines for electric traction rail rolling stock and road vehicles Part 4: Permanent magnet synchronous motors connected to electronic converters

There are too few standards for permanent magnet motors, and the special standards for permanent magnet motors powered by frequency converters are even rarer. This one is more valuable. Although it was proposed in the field of rail transportation, many of its contents are applicable to all industries. This standard proposes test methods for several key parameters of permanent magnet motors: no-load back electromotive force, short-circuit current, verification of anti-loss of excitation capabilities, etc. The 18488 used in electric vehicles is also very good, but it is also suitable for asynchronous motors and lacks the characteristics of permanent magnet motors. In contrast, although it is not a national standard, QC/T 1069 "Permanent Magnet Synchronous Drive Motor System for Electric Vehicles" does not have much content, but it is written more professionally and can be used as a reference. It is mutually verified and adopted with 25123.4. Here is a complaint about 22669. It has a fancy name, but it is only suitable for self-starting permanent magnet motors, and its application range is too limited.

GB/T 1993 Cooling methods for rotating electrical machines

Any motor requires cooling , and the cooling method has a decisive impact on the power density of the motor. If you are designing a new motor (mainly large and medium-sized motors) and don’t know what cooling method to use, you can find inspiration from this standard. The advantage of this standard is that it covers various cooling methods in concise language and tables; the disadvantage is that it is so concise that the specific expression of the cooling code is quite ambiguous in many situations. Moreover, this standard has not been updated in 30 years. I don’t know why. Since it is selected, the protection level standards related to it such as 4208 and 4942 are no longer selected.

GB/T 20645 Technical requirements for low-voltage electrical appliances for plateau use under special environmental conditions

High and low temperature, humidity and heat, salt spray, sand and dust, vibration and impact... the impact of the environment on the motor is self-evident; due to space limitations, we can only expand from the dimension of altitude. Take the plateau as an example. Let’s not talk about exports. China’s topography is characterized by mountains and plateaus. Electric vehicles and rail transit must consider the plateau environment. Mining and oil and gas pipeline construction are also mainly concentrated in the central and western regions, so there are many areas in this area. Motor manufacturers have to face it. There are many standards of this type, and they are involved in almost all special industries. This standard was chosen because the impact of plateaus is more thoroughly discussed. Things that are higher than the plateau, such as motors for aircraft, or even aerospace, I have no experience with, so I can't give an appropriate standard.

GB/T 7060 Basic requirements for marine rotating electrical machines

Many contents of this standard come from relevant specifications of classification societies. Choosing it is not to praise it itself, firstly, it is to correspond to the previous standard, going up mountains and seas; secondly, transportation is an important application of motor, which should be one of the basis for the selection criteria. Maybe it’s because the place where I live is vigorously developing the marine economy. I feel that this is an important engine for future economic development. Marine applications are not only ships, but underwater equipment such as submersibles also have considerable development potential. It's just that the current standards in this area are quite lacking, and the only ones that can be found are some submersible pumps for wells. Here we recommend CB/T 1184 "General Technical Conditions for AC Motors for Submersible Propulsion". Although it is a shipbuilding industry standard, it is issued by the Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense. The relevant content reveals some characteristics of submersible motors.

JB/T 12882 YBKK series high voltage flameproof three-phase asynchronous motor technical conditions

This standard gathers several elements: high voltage, 3kV~10kV; high power, up to 7MW; large base size, up to H900; explosion-proof type. Although 3836 cannot be selected for this list, after all, explosion-proof motors are motors. One of the important categories, we cannot ignore it; air-to-air cooling, the design of the cooling air path is very important; the mechanical industry standard can be used as a representative in addition to the national standard. But to be honest, I don’t know how applicable it is. For example, if it is too difficult to use H900 to do 3000 rpm. Generally speaking, I am not interested in motor standards such as XX series technical conditions. The contents are similar. It is hard to say whether this "difference" is justified, especially because some industry standards are really dispensable.

GB/T 38090 Technical requirements for permanent magnet materials for electric vehicle drive motors

As mentioned before, write down less raw material standards. There are three reasons why I chose this. First, after all, electromagnetic materials such as electromagnetic wires, silicon steel sheets, and permanent magnets have a great impact on motor performance. In particular, permanent magnets play a decisive role in permanent magnet motors, and we must understand it; second, electric vehicles and their drive systems are indeed To a certain extent, it leads the development direction of motor technology. You can compare 38090 and 13560. If you are interested, you can also compare 34215 and 2521.1. Third, the insulation system of the motor is also very important, but the power supply voltage level and working system are too different. Many, I can't find a representative standard.

ISO 9000 family quality management system

Due to custom, the national standard number is not written here. You know, putting it at the end just for the finale. The specific evaluation of 9000 is beyond the scope of my work, but in my personal opinion, this set of standards should be taught as a course in middle schools or universities, because it is a system and a methodology . Some friends may think that 9000 is child's play, but first, how many companies can strictly implement 9000? Second, just as 1032 is the basis of motor test methods, which one of IATF 16949 and ISO/TS 22163 is not an extension based on the 9000 architecture? If you want to understand and implement advanced content, you can also pay attention to 19579 and 19580. Others, such as environmental management systems and occupational health and safety management systems, have similarities and will not be described in detail.

Supplement and summary

After writing this, there is always something left behind. For example, in terms of environmental testing, I wanted to include the GJB 150 series "Military Equipment Laboratory Environmental Test Method". The military standard should also have a representative, but because it is not specifically for motors, I had to give up. There are no standards for DC motors, micromotors and generators only because of the author's own knowledge deficiencies, as well as the difficulty in screening the insulation system standards mentioned above, etc. There is no choice but to give up.

For each criterion, a keyword in bold was selected. Some of the criteria were not appropriately selected, but they were better than nothing. Various factors must be taken into consideration, so I am not very satisfied with all 10 standards. In general, it is better to use IEC/ISO standards for translation (1032 is closely related to IEC60034-2). We still need to work harder to raise the level of domestic standards.

It is unrealistic to expect that familiarity with the standards will lead to automatic motor design, but it is expected that familiarity with the standards will significantly improve the design level. Perhaps there is only a layer of window paper between mastering standards and designing a good product.

In short, this list is mainly based on the ontology standards of motors, focusing on variable frequency motors and permanent magnet motors, taking appropriate care of different application scenarios. I believe that I have tried my best to achieve the original intention of "high knowledge, highlighting key points, and wide coverage". But just like the various reasons mentioned above, it’s not a problem to miss anything. You are welcome to leave a private message.