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A comprehensive introduction to brushless DC motors

Date:2023-11-10   Author:XINDA MOTOR

The brushless DC motor , referred to as BLDC, uses alternating current as its power supply. However, due to the special design of the internal structure of the motor, its working principle is very different from that of the brushed DC motor. So what are its structure, working principle, advantages and application fields?

First of all, in terms of structure, the brushless DC motor mainly consists of a rotor, a stator, a sensor and a driver. The rotor, consisting of permanent magnets, generates a magnetic field through electrical excitation. The stator consists of three or more windings in which current is passed to further generate a magnetic field. Sensor, used to detect the rotor position, usually consists of Hall sensors, etc. The driver controls the working mode and speed of the motor to ensure the normal operation of the motor. The second is the working principle of brushless motors . The biggest difference between brushless DC motors and brushed DC motors is the different excitation methods of the rotor. The brushless DC motor has permanent magnets installed on the rotor. When current passes through the stator winding, a stator magnetic field is generated. According to different control methods, the driver will detect the rotor position through the sensor, and then control the current of the stator winding to generate a rotating magnetic field. Because the permanent magnets on the rotor are affected by the magnetic field of the stator, the rotor starts to rotate. The driver controls the current magnitude and direction of the winding based on feedback from the sensor to maintain stable rotation of the rotor. Let’s talk about the advantages of brushless DC motors . Compared with brushed DC motors, brushless DC clicks reduce energy loss and improve overall efficiency. It also has high torque density. Since there are no carbon brushes and phase commutators, the brushless DC motor has an extremely simple structure and is lightweight, but it can produce greater torque. High life, no need to replace carbon brushes regularly, brushless DC motor has a longer life. No sparks. Since there is no contact problem with the brushes, the brushless DC motor will not generate sparks and is suitable for some application scenarios with special requirements. No interference. Since the brushless DC motor does not produce electromagnetic interference caused by brush friction, it will cause less interference to sensitive systems such as precision instruments and communication equipment. Finally, regarding its application fields, brushless DC motors are widely used in various loads, constant loads and positioning applications in industrial automation, machinery and equipment, electric vehicles, drones, aviation, industrial equipment, healthcare equipment and other fields. and other fields. For example, brushless DC motors can be used to drive conveyor belts, pumps, fans, etc. in mechanical equipment. In electric vehicles, brushless DC motors can be used to drive the wheels. In drones, brushless DC motors can provide powerful power and high efficiency.

In general, the brushless servo motor is a motor with high efficiency, high torque density, no sparks and low interference. It has simple structure, long life and wide application fields. With the development of science and technology and the increase in application requirements, brushless DC motors will have greater development space and application prospects.

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